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在Docker容器中部署静态网页的方法教程

发布时间:2020-09-20 06:33:19 来源:脚本之家 阅读:83 作者:兴国First 栏目:服务器

前言

一般我们在访问容器时需要通过容器的端口来访问,那如何设置容器的端口映射呢?

我们通过以下命令来设置:

docker run -p ip:hostPort:containerPort [--name] [-i] [-t] 镜像名 [COMMAND][ARG...]
  • ip:表示宿主机ip
  • hostPort:宿主机端口号
  • containerPort:容器端口号

设置的方式有以下几种:

containerPort,指定容器端口号,宿主机端口随机生成

[root@localhost ~]# docker run -p 80 --name web_test -i -t 80864d42dd23  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu /bin/bash

hostPort:containerPort映射主机端口和容器端口

[root@localhost ~]# docker run -p 8080:80 --name web_test -i -t 80864d42dd23  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu /bin/bash

ip::containerPort设置主机的随机端口到容器端口

[root@localhost ~]# docker run -p 0.0.0.0::80 --name web_test -i -t 80864d42dd23  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu /bin/bash

ip:hostPort:containerPort映射指定地址的指定端口到容器的指定端口

[root@localhost ~]# docker run -p 0.0.0.0:8080:80 --name web_test -i -t 80864d42dd23  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu /bin/bash

下面通过nginx在容器部署静态网页,通过以下步骤

      - 创建80映射端口的交互式容器

      - 安装nginx

      - 安装文本编辑器vim

      - 创建静态网页

      - 运行nginx

      - 验证网页

示例如下(如果安装完ubuntu后不能安装nginx进行apt-get update):

[root@localhost ~]# docker run -p 80 --name static_test -i -t hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu /bin/bash
root@25fcbf6e953d:/# apt-get install -y nginx
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree  
Reading state information... Done
E: Unable to locate package nginx
root@25fcbf6e953d:/# apt-get update   
Get:1 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial InRelease [247 kB]
Get:2 http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-updates InRelease [102 kB]
**中间日志省略。。。。。。。。。。**                   
Fetched 24.9 MB in 9s (2717 kB/s)                                 
Reading package lists... Done
root@25fcbf6e953d:/# apt-get install -y nginx
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree  
Reading state information... Done
**安装日志省略。。。。。。。。。。**

然后安装vim:

root@25fcbf6e953d:/# apt-get install -y vim
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree  
Reading state information... Done
The following additional packages will be installed:
**安装日志省略。。。。。。。。。。**

然后建立存放静态文件的目录,并创建一个简单的html文件:

root@25fcbf6e953d:/# mkdir -p /var/www/html
root@25fcbf6e953d:/# 
root@25fcbf6e953d:/# cd /var/www/html/
root@25fcbf6e953d:/var/www/html# vim index.html
root@25fcbf6e953d:/var/www/html# ll 
total 8
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 53 Mar 13 05:02 ./
drwxr-xr-x. 3 root root 17 Mar 13 04:50 ../
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 79 Mar 13 05:02 index.html
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 612 Mar 13 04:51 index.nginx-debian.html
root@25fcbf6e953d:/var/www/html# cat index.html 
<html>
<body>
<h2>
  this is the first docker static file
</h2>
</body>
</html>
root@25fcbf6e953d:/var/www/html# 

找到nginx的安装目录,更改default的root值为刚才创建的目录:

root@25fcbf6e953d:/var/www/html# whereis nginx
nginx: /usr/sbin/nginx /etc/nginx /usr/share/nginx
root@25fcbf6e953d:/var/www/html# cd /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/
root@25fcbf6e953d:/etc/nginx/sites-enabled# ll
total 4
drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 20 Mar 13 04:51 ./
drwxr-xr-x. 6 root root 4096 Mar 13 04:51 ../
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 34 Mar 13 04:51 default -> /etc/nginx/sites-available/default
root@25fcbf6e953d:/etc/nginx/sites-enabled# vim default 

在Docker容器中部署静态网页的方法教程

然后启动nginx,查看容器进程:

root@25fcbf6e953d:/etc/nginx/sites-enabled# nginx
root@25fcbf6e953d:/etc/nginx/sites-enabled# ps -ef 
UID  PID PPID C STIME TTY   TIME CMD
root   1  0 0 04:48 ?  00:00:00 /bin/bash
root  827  1 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: master process nginx
www-data 828 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data 829 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data 830 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data 831 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data 832 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data 833 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data 834 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
www-data 835 827 0 05:06 ?  00:00:00 nginx: worker process
root  836  1 0 05:07 ?  00:00:00 ps -ef
root@25fcbf6e953d:/etc/nginx/sites-enabled# 

然后按ctrl+p,ctrl+q退出交互式容器。

使用Docker ps查看容器的端口和运行情况,也可以通过dcoker port 镜像名查看:

root@localhost ~]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE       COMMAND     CREATED    STATUS    PORTS     NAMES
25fcbf6e953d  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu "/bin/bash"    18 minutes ago  Up 18 minutes  0.0.0.0:32772->80/tcp static_test
[root@localhost ~]# docker port static_test
80/tcp -> 0.0.0.0:32772
[root@localhost ~]# 

可以看到容器的80端口映射到注解的32772端口。

通过curl访问创建的index.html文件:

[root@localhost ~]# curl http://127.0.0.1:32772/index.html
<html>
<body>
<h2>
  this is the first docker static file
</h2>
</body>
</html>
[root@localhost ~]#

也可以通过docker inspect 容器名来查看容器的详细信息和ip

通过容器ip进行访问:

[root@localhost ~]# docker inspect static_test
其他信息省略
"IPAddress": "172.17.0.5",
[root@localhost ~]# curl http://172.17.0.5/index.html
<html>
<body>
<h2>
  this is the first docker static file
</h2>
</body>
</html>
[root@localhost ~]# 

当我们使用docker stop 容器名停止这个容器后,再使用docker start 容器名启动容器后,里面的nginx并没有启动。那么我们使用docker exec 容器名 nginx来启动:

[root@localhost ~]# docker stop static_test
static_test
[root@localhost ~]# docker ps 
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE       COMMAND     CREATED    STATUS    PORTS     NAMES
b4f32bbe4a34  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu "/bin/bash"    41 hours ago  Up 41 hours         loving_brattain
d75a2d8c7822  xingguo/df_test1    "nginx -g 'daemon off" 2 days ago   Up 2 days   0.0.0.0:32770->80/tcp df_nginx_web
959c0fc5d903  xingguo/commit_test1   "nginx -g 'daemon off" 2 days ago   Up 2 days   0.0.0.0:32769->80/tcp nginx_test
[root@localhost ~]# docker start static_test
static_test
[root@localhost ~]# docker ps 
CONTAINER ID  IMAGE       COMMAND     CREATED    STATUS    PORTS     NAMES
25fcbf6e953d  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu "/bin/bash"    29 minutes ago  Up 2 seconds  0.0.0.0:32773->80/tcp static_test
b4f32bbe4a34  hub.c.163.com/library/ubuntu "/bin/bash"    41 hours ago  Up 41 hours         loving_brattain
d75a2d8c7822  xingguo/df_test1    "nginx -g 'daemon off" 2 days ago   Up 2 days   0.0.0.0:32770->80/tcp df_nginx_web
959c0fc5d903  xingguo/commit_test1   "nginx -g 'daemon off" 2 days ago   Up 2 days   0.0.0.0:32769->80/tcp nginx_test
[root@localhost ~]# docker top static_test
UID     PID     PPID    C     STIME    TTY     TIME    CMD
root    4719    4702    0     13:17    pts/2    00:00:00   /bin/bash
[root@localhost ~]# docker exec static_test nginx
[root@localhost ~]# docker top static_test
UID     PID     PPID    C     STIME    TTY     TIME    CMD
root    4719    4702    0     13:17    pts/2    00:00:00   /bin/bash
root    4800    1     0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: master process nginx
amandab+   4801    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
amandab+   4802    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
amandab+   4803    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
amandab+   4804    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
amandab+   4805    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
amandab+   4806    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
amandab+   4807    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
amandab+   4808    4800    0     13:18    ?     00:00:00   nginx: worker process
[root@localhost ~]# 

总结

以上就是这篇文章的全部内容了,希望本文的内容对大家的学习或者工作能带来一定的帮助,如有疑问大家可以留言交流,谢谢大家对亿速云的支持。

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