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Android10.0如何实现本地音乐播放?

发布时间:2020-06-23 13:57:43 来源:亿速云 阅读:112 作者:清晨 栏目:开发技术

这篇文章将为大家详细讲解有关Android10.0如何实现本地音乐播放?,小编觉得挺实用的,因此分享给大家做个参考,希望大家阅读完这篇文章后可以有所收获。

1.概述

本篇文章仅是Android小白在写一个小程序,内容仅供参考,有很多不足之处希望各位大神指出,文章末尾有整个项目的下载,不需要币,只求帮你们解决到问题的同时收获到一颗小小的赞。这个项目中还有很多不足的地方,如:在按键中设置图片文字,这些正常的应该交给Handler处理,我只是粗略地完成这个项目。测试环境:Android10.0。实现:自动播放下一首,正常音乐的功能,全屏显示。
Android10.0是内外分存了的,应用是没有权限读取内存的,需要在配置文件中application中加上属性:android:requestLegacyExternalStorage=“true”,不加可能可以读取歌曲,但是无法播放。

2.效果截图

截图显示不同是因为这不是同一时间截的,只是一个效果图

Android10.0如何实现本地音乐播放?Android10.0如何实现本地音乐播放?

3.读取本地音乐以及保存歌曲

①先在AndroidManifest文件里面配置权限

<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"></uses-permission>
<uses-permission android:name="android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE"></uses-permission>

②目前基本上的手机使用静态权限是不够的,需要动态获取权限,因此需要在MainActivity里面动态获取,在onCreate方法里调用方法

private void check(){
 if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.M) {
  if (checkSelfPermission(Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE) != PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED ) {
   requestPermissions(new String[]{Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE}, 1);
   Log.d(TAG,"---------------------写权限不够-----------------");
  }
  if(checkSelfPermission(Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE)!= PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED ){
   requestPermissions(new String[]{Manifest.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE}, 2);
   Log.d(TAG,"---------------------读权限不够-----------------");
  }
 }
}

③再去实现权限的回调方法,与Activity的onCreate方法是同一级别的

@Override
public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode, @NonNull String[] permissions, @NonNull int[] grantResults) {
 super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults);
 switch (requestCode) {
  case 1:
   if (grantResults.length > 0 && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
    Log.d(TAG, "---------------------写权限够了-----------------------------");
   }
   break;
  case 2:
   if (grantResults.length > 0 && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) {
    Log.d(TAG, "---------------------读权限够了-----------------------------");
   }
   break;
 }
}

④创建一个工具类Mp3Info,用来保存音乐信息的,里面主要是一些get和set方法

public class Mp3Info {
 private String url;//路径
 private String title;//歌曲名
 private String artist;//艺术家
 private long duration;//歌曲时长
 private long id;
 private long album;//专辑图片
 }

⑤创建一个MusicUtil类,通过ContentPorvider的接口获取歌曲信息

public class MusicUtil {
 //获取专辑封面的UI
 private static final String TAG="MusicUtil";
 private static final Uri albumArtUri=Uri.parse("content://media/external/audio/albumart");
 //生成歌曲列表
 public static List<Mp3Info> getMp3InfoList(Context context){
  Cursor cursor=context.getContentResolver().query(MediaStore.Audio.Media.EXTERNAL_CONTENT_URI, null, null, null,null);
  List<Mp3Info> mp3InfoList=new ArrayList<>();
  while(cursor.moveToNext()){
   Mp3Info mp3Info=new Mp3Info();
   mp3Info.setUrl(cursor.getString(cursor.getColumnIndex(MediaStore.Audio.Media.DATA)));//path
   mp3Info.setTitle(cursor.getString(cursor.getColumnIndex(MediaStore.Audio.Media.TITLE)));
   mp3Info.setArtist(cursor.getString(cursor.getColumnIndex(MediaStore.Audio.Media.ARTIST)));
   mp3Info.setDuration(cursor.getLong(cursor.getColumnIndex(MediaStore.Audio.Media.DURATION)));
   mp3Info.setId(cursor.getLong(cursor.getColumnIndex(MediaStore.Audio.Media._ID)));
   mp3Info.setAlbum(cursor.getInt(cursor.getColumnIndex(MediaStore.Audio.Media.ALBUM_ID)));
   mp3InfoList.add(mp3Info);
  }
  return mp3InfoList;
 }
 //格式化时间,转换为分/秒
 public static String formatTime(long time){
  String min = time / (1000 * 60) + "";
  String sec = time % (1000 * 60) + "";
  if (min.length() < 2) {
   min = "0" + time / (1000 * 60) + "";
  } else {
   min = time / (1000 * 60) + "";
  }
  if (sec.length() == 4) {
   sec = "0" + (time % (1000 * 60)) + "";
  } else if (sec.length() == 3) {
   sec = "00" + (time % (1000 * 60)) + "";
  } else if (sec.length() == 2) {
   sec = "000" + (time % (1000 * 60)) + "";
  } else if (sec.length() == 1) {
   sec = "0000" + (time % (1000 * 60)) + "";
  }
  return min + ":" + sec.trim().substring(0, 2);
 }

 //获取专辑图片,目前是只能获取手机自带歌曲的专辑图片,如果手机有酷狗,qq音乐之类的,可能无法获取专辑图片
 //因为他们的uri不知道。
 public Bitmap getArtwork(Context context, long song_id, long album_id, boolean allowdefalut, boolean small){
  if(album_id < 0) {
   if(song_id < 0) {
    Bitmap bm = getArtworkFromFile(context, song_id, -1);
    if(bm != null) {
     return bm;
    }
   }
   if(allowdefalut) {
    return getDefaultArtwork(context, small);
   }
   return null;
  }
  ContentResolver res = context.getContentResolver();
  Uri uri = ContentUris.withAppendedId(albumArtUri, album_id);
  if(uri != null) {
   InputStream in = null;
   try {
    in = res.openInputStream(uri);
    BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options();
    //先制定原始大小
    options.inSampleSize = 1;
    //只进行大小判断
    options.inJustDecodeBounds = true;
    //调用此方法得到options得到图片的大小
    BitmapFactory.decodeStream(in, null, options);
    /** 我们的目标是在你N pixel的画面上显示。 所以需要调用computeSampleSize得到图片缩放的比例 **/
    /** 这里的target为800是根据默认专辑图片大小决定的,800只是测试数字但是试验后发现完美的结合 **/
    if(small){
     options.inSampleSize = computeSampleSize(options, 40);
    } else{
     options.inSampleSize = computeSampleSize(options, 600);
    }
    // 我们得到了缩放比例,现在开始正式读入Bitmap数据
    options.inJustDecodeBounds = false;
    options.inDither = false;
    options.inPreferredConfig = Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888;
    in = res.openInputStream(uri);
    return BitmapFactory.decodeStream(in, null, options);
   } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
    Bitmap bm = getArtworkFromFile(context, song_id, album_id);
    if(bm != null) {
     if(bm.getConfig() == null) {
      bm = bm.copy(Bitmap.Config.RGB_565, false);
      if(bm == null && allowdefalut) {
       return getDefaultArtwork(context, small);
      }
     }
    } else if(allowdefalut) {
     bm = getDefaultArtwork(context, small);
    }
    return bm;
   } finally {
    try {
     if(in != null) {
      in.close();
     }
    } catch (IOException e) {
     e.printStackTrace();
    }
   }
  }
  return null;
 }
 /**
  * 从文件当中获取专辑封面位图
  * @param context
  * @param songid
  * @param albumid
  * @return
  */
 private static Bitmap getArtworkFromFile(Context context, long songid, long albumid){
  Bitmap bm = null;
  if(albumid < 0 && songid < 0) {
   throw new IllegalArgumentException("---------------------"+TAG+"Must specify an album or a song id");
  }
  try {
   BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options();
   FileDescriptor fd = null;
   if(albumid < 0){
    Uri uri = Uri.parse("content://media/external/audio/media/" + songid + "/albumart");
    ParcelFileDescriptor pfd = context.getContentResolver().openFileDescriptor(uri, "r");
    if(pfd != null) {
     fd = pfd.getFileDescriptor();
    }
   } else {
    Uri uri = ContentUris.withAppendedId(albumArtUri, albumid);
    ParcelFileDescriptor pfd = context.getContentResolver().openFileDescriptor(uri, "r");
    if(pfd != null) {
     fd = pfd.getFileDescriptor();
    }
   }
   options.inSampleSize = 1;
   // 只进行大小判断
   options.inJustDecodeBounds = true;
   // 调用此方法得到options得到图片大小
   BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor(fd, null, options);
   // 我们的目标是在800pixel的画面上显示
   // 所以需要调用computeSampleSize得到图片缩放的比例
   options.inSampleSize = 100;
   // 我们得到了缩放的比例,现在开始正式读入Bitmap数据
   options.inJustDecodeBounds = false;
   options.inDither = false;
   options.inPreferredConfig = Bitmap.Config.ARGB_8888;

   //根据options参数,减少所需要的内存
   bm = BitmapFactory.decodeFileDescriptor(fd, null, options);
  } catch (FileNotFoundException e) {
   e.printStackTrace();
  }
  return bm;
 }

 /**
  * 获取默认专辑图片
  * @param context
  * @return
  */
 @SuppressLint("ResourceType")
 public static Bitmap getDefaultArtwork(Context context, boolean small) {
  BitmapFactory.Options opts = new BitmapFactory.Options();
  opts.inPreferredConfig = Bitmap.Config.RGB_565;
  if(small){ //返回小图片
   //return
   BitmapFactory.decodeStream(context.getResources().openRawResource(R.drawable.default_picture), null, opts);
  }
  return BitmapFactory.decodeStream(context.getResources().openRawResource(R.drawable.default_picture), null, opts);
 }

 /**
  * 对图片进行合适的缩放
  * @param options
  * @param target
  * @return
  */
 public static int computeSampleSize(BitmapFactory.Options options, int target) {
  int w = options.outWidth;
  int h = options.outHeight;
  int candidateW = w / target;
  int candidateH = h / target;
  int candidate = Math.max(candidateW, candidateH);
  if(candidate == 0) {
   return 1;
  }
  if(candidate > 1) {
   if((w > target) && (w / candidate) < target) {
    candidate -= 1;
   }
  }
  if(candidate > 1) {
   if((h > target) && (h / candidate) < target) {
    candidate -= 1;
   }
  }
  return candidate;
 }
}

⑥为列表设置adapter,新建一个MyAdapter类继承BaseAdapter,然后在重写的getView里面设置显示的控件

@Override
public View getView(int position, View convertView, ViewGroup parent) {
 if(convertView==null){
  holder=new ViewHolder();
  convertView=View.inflate(context, R.layout.list_item,null);
  holder.tv_title=convertView.findViewById(R.id.tv_title);
  holder.tv_artist=convertView.findViewById(R.id.tv_artist);
  holder.tv_duration=convertView.findViewById(R.id.tv_duration);
  holder.tv_position=convertView.findViewById(R.id.tv_position);
  convertView.setTag(holder);
 }else {
  holder= (ViewHolder) convertView.getTag();
 }
 holder.tv_title.setText(list.get(position).getTitle());
 holder.tv_artist.setText(list.get(position).getArtist());
 long duration = list.get(position).getDuration();
 String time= MusicUtil.formatTime(duration);
 holder.tv_duration.setText(time);
 holder.tv_position.setText(position+1+"");
 if(currentItem == position){
  holder.tv_title.setSelected(true);
  holder.tv_position.setSelected(true);
  holder.tv_duration.setSelected(true);
  holder.tv_artist.setSelected(true);
 }else{
  holder.tv_title.setSelected(false);
  holder.tv_position.setSelected(false);
  holder.tv_duration.setSelected(false);
  holder.tv_artist.setSelected(false);
 }
 return convertView;
}
class ViewHolder{
 TextView tv_title;//歌曲名
 TextView tv_artist;//歌手
 TextView tv_duration;//时长
 TextView tv_position;//序号
}

4.使用Service实现后台播放

使用的是bindService,这样Service的生命周期就和Activity的生命周期绑定在一起了。创建一个MusicService。注意:销毁Service的时候需要将音乐对象release。

①Service实现功能,在onBind方法里面实例化音乐播放对象

@Override
public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
 Log.d(TAG,"onBind is call");
 myBinder=new MyBinder();
 return myBinder;
}

②在MyBinder()里面实现音乐的各种功能,使用的是内部类,初始化部分请看源代码包

public class MyBinder extends Binder{
 private int index=0;//歌曲索引
 //播放音乐
 public void playMusic(int index){
  this.index=index;
  try {
   File file=new File(list.get(this.index).getUrl());
   if(!file.exists()){
    Log.d(TAG,"------------------------------文件不存在------------------------------");
    return ;
   }else{
    Log.d(TAG,"------------------------------文件:"+file.getPath()+"存在 ------------------------------");
   }
   if(mediaPlayer!=null){
    mediaPlayer.reset();
    mediaPlayer.release();
   }
   mediaPlayer=new MediaPlayer();
   String str=list.get(this.index).getUrl();
   mediaPlayer.setDataSource(str);
   Log.d(TAG,list.get(this.index).getUrl()+"");
   mediaPlayer.prepare();
   mediaPlayer.start();
  } catch (IOException e) {
   e.printStackTrace();
  }
 }
 //暂停音乐
 public void pauseMusic(){
  if(mediaPlayer.isPlaying()){
   mediaPlayer.pause();
  }
 }
 //关闭音乐
 public void closeMusic(){
  if(mediaPlayer!=null){
   mediaPlayer.release();
  }
 }
 //下一首
 public void nextMusic(){
  if(index>=list.size()-1){
   this.index=0;
  }else{
   this.index+=1;
  }
  playMusic(this.index);
 }
 //上一首
 public void preciousMusic(){
  if(index<=0){
   this.index=list.size()-1;
  }else{
   this.index-=1;
  }
  playMusic(this.index);
 }
 //获取歌曲时长
 public int getProgress(int dex){
  return (int)list.get(dex).getDuration();
 }
 public int getProgress(){
  return (int)list.get(index).getDuration();
 }
 //获取当前播放位置
 public int getPlayPosition(){
  return mediaPlayer.getCurrentPosition();
 }
 //移动到当前点播放
 public void seekToPosition(int m){
  mediaPlayer.seekTo(m);
 }

}

③在MainActivity里面绑定
a.先实例化一个ServiceConnection对象

private ServiceConnection connection=new ServiceConnection() {
 @Override
 public void onServiceConnected(ComponentName name, IBinder service) {
  myBinder= (MusicService.MyBinder) service;
  seekBar.setMax(myBinder.getProgress());
  seekBar.setOnSeekBarChangeListener(new SeekBar.OnSeekBarChangeListener() {
   @Override
   public void onProgressChanged(SeekBar seekBar, int progress, boolean fromUser) {
    //这里是判断进度条移动是不是用户所为
    if(fromUser){
     myBinder.seekToPosition(seekBar.getProgress());
    }
   }

   @Override
   public void onStartTrackingTouch(SeekBar seekBar) {

   }

   @Override
   public void onStopTrackingTouch(SeekBar seekBar) {

   }
  });
  handler.post(runnable);
  Log.d(TAG, "Service与Activity已连接");
 }

 @Override
 public void onServiceDisconnected(ComponentName name) {

 }
};

b.还需要一个handler来控制ui组件的变化,实例化放在了onCreate方法里面。
c.用一个Runnable对象进行seekbar的前进

private Runnable runnable=new Runnable() {
 @Override
 public void run() {
  seekBar.setProgress(myBinder.getPlayPosition());
  tv_leftTime.setText(time.format(myBinder.getPlayPosition())+"");
  tv_rightTime.setText(time.format(myBinder.getProgress()-myBinder.getPlayPosition())+"");
  if(myBinder.getProgress()-myBinder.getPlayPosition()<1000){//时间不够了自动触发下一首
   runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {//使用ui线程来触发按键点击事件,不知道这样有没有什么危害
    @Override
    public void run() {
     ib_next.performClick();
    }
   });
  }
  handler.postDelayed(runnable,1000);
 }
};

d.在onCreate方法里进行绑定

MediaServiceIntent =new Intent(this,MusicService.class);//MediaServiceIntent为一个Intent
bindService(MediaServiceIntent,connection,BIND_AUTO_CREATE);

5.使用Notification通知栏通知

注意::如果点击通知栏是从MainActivity跳转到MainActivity,需要在配置文件的activity android:name=".MainActivity"
android:launchMode=“singleTask”,设置为单任务。
布局在源代码包里,在Api26级以上需要使用NotificationChannel
①设置通知所触发的PandingIntent,通过Action识别,action为自己定义的常量,setSound无声音。通过RemoteViews去实现通知栏组件的按钮实现

//设置通知
private void setNotification(){
 String channelID="cary";
 if(Build.VERSION.SDK_INT>=Build.VERSION_CODES.O){
  NotificationChannel channel=new NotificationChannel(channelID,"xxx",NotificationManager.IMPORTANCE_LOW);
  manager.createNotificationChannel(channel);
 }
 Intent intent=new Intent(MainActivity.this,MainActivity.class);
 PendingIntent pi=PendingIntent.getActivity(MainActivity.this,0,intent,0);
 if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.O) {
  notify=new Notification.Builder(MainActivity.this,channelID)
   .setWhen(System.currentTimeMillis())
   .setSound(null)
   .build();
 }
 notify.icon=android.R.drawable.btn_star;
 notify.contentIntent=pi;
 notify.contentView=remoteViews;
 notify.flags=Notification.FLAG_ONGOING_EVENT;
 remoteViews.setOnClickPendingIntent(R.id.notice,pi);
 //上一首
 Intent prevIntent=new Intent(BUTTON_PREV_ID);
 PendingIntent prevPendingIntent=PendingIntent.getBroadcast(this,0,prevIntent,0);
 remoteViews.setOnClickPendingIntent(R.id.widget_prev,prevPendingIntent);
 //播放暂停
 Intent playIntent=new Intent(BUTTON_PLAY_ID);
 PendingIntent playPendingIntent=PendingIntent.getBroadcast(this,0,playIntent,0);
 remoteViews.setOnClickPendingIntent(R.id.widget_play,playPendingIntent);
 //下一首
 Intent nextIntent=new Intent(BUTTON_NEXT_ID);
 PendingIntent nextPendingIntent=PendingIntent.getBroadcast(this,0,nextIntent,0);
 remoteViews.setOnClickPendingIntent(R.id.widget_next,nextPendingIntent);
 //关闭
 Intent closeIntent=new Intent(BUTTON_CLOSE_ID);
 PendingIntent closePendingIntent=PendingIntent.getBroadcast(this,0,closeIntent,0);
 remoteViews.setOnClickPendingIntent(R.id.widget_close,closePendingIntent);
}

②动态注册广播

//注册广播
private void initButtonReceiver(){
 buttonBroadcastReceiver=new ButtonBroadcastReceiver();
 IntentFilter intentFilter=new IntentFilter();
 intentFilter.addAction(BUTTON_PREV_ID);
 intentFilter.addAction(BUTTON_PLAY_ID);
 intentFilter.addAction(BUTTON_NEXT_ID);
 intentFilter.addAction(BUTTON_CLOSE_ID);
 registerReceiver(buttonBroadcastReceiver,intentFilter);
}

③显示广播,需要注意的是,每次在Activity里面点击上一首或者下一首都需要调用这个方法,刷新通知栏的标题,以及状态专辑

//展示通知
private void showNotification(){
 if(isPlaying){
  remoteViews.setImageViewResource(R.id.widget_play,R.drawable.stop);
 }else{
  remoteViews.setImageViewResource(R.id.widget_play,R.drawable.start);
 }
 remoteViews.setImageViewBitmap(R.id.widget_album,utils.getArtwork(MainActivity.this,list.get(music_index).getId(),list.get(music_index).getAlbum(),true,false));
 remoteViews.setImageViewResource(R.id.widget_close,android.R.drawable.ic_menu_close_clear_cancel);
 remoteViews.setTextViewText(R.id.widget_title,list.get(music_index).getTitle());
 remoteViews.setTextViewText(R.id.widget_artist,list.get(music_index).getArtist());
 remoteViews.setTextColor(R.id.widget_title,Color.BLACK);
 remoteViews.setTextColor(R.id.widget_artist,Color.BLACK);
 notify.contentView=remoteViews;
 manager.notify(100,notify);
}

④通知栏动作接收,使用的是内部类

public class ButtonBroadcastReceiver extends BroadcastReceiver{

 @Override
 public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
  String action=intent.getAction();
  Log.d(TAG,"--------------------收到action:"+action+"--------------------------");
  if(action.equals(BUTTON_PREV_ID)){
   runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
    @Override
    public void run() {
     ib_precious.performClick();
     return;
    }
   });
  }
  if(action.equals(BUTTON_PLAY_ID)){
   runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
    @Override
    public void run() {
     ib_state.performClick();
     return;
    }
   });
  }
  if(action.equals(BUTTON_NEXT_ID)){
   runOnUiThread(new Runnable() {
    @Override
    public void run() {
     ib_next.performClick();
     return;
    }
   });
  }
  if(action.equals(BUTTON_CLOSE_ID)){
   handler.removeCallbacks(runnable);
   myBinder.closeMusic();
   unbindService(connection);
   if(remoteViews!=null){
    manager.cancel(100);
   }
   unregisterReceiver(buttonBroadcastReceiver);
   finish();
  }
 }
}

6.全屏显示

①在AndroidManifest文件里面配置主题样式android:theme="@style/Theme.AppCompat.Light.NoActionBar">
然后在onCreate方法里在setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);之前
设置:

if(Build.VERSION.SDK_INT>=21){
 View decorView=getWindow().getDecorView();
 decorView.setSystemUiVisibility(View.SYSTEM_UI_FLAG_LAYOUT_FULLSCREEN|View.SYSTEM_UI_FLAG_LAYOUT_STABLE);
 getWindow().setStatusBarColor(Color.TRANSPARENT);
}

7.设置歌曲选中后的样式

①在res目录下的drawable资源下新建一个类型为selector的xml文件,里面设置属性

<&#63;xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"&#63;>
<selector xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android">
 <item
  android:state_selected="false"
  android:color="#FFFFFF"/>
 <item
  android:state_selected="true"
  android:color="#FF7F00"/>
</selector>

②在Adapter里面设置getView

currentItem == position){
 holder.tv_title.setSelected(true);
 holder.tv_position.setSelected(true);
 holder.tv_duration.setSelected(true);
 holder.tv_artist.setSelected(true);
}else{
 holder.tv_title.setSelected(false);
 holder.tv_position.setSelected(false);
 holder.tv_duration.setSelected(false);
 holder.tv_artist.setSelected(false);
}

注意:在使用的时候可能需要手动去设置里面打开权限

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