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UNIX/Linux 系统管理技术手册阅读(二)

发布时间:2020-03-04 20:45:31 来源:51CTO 阅读:367 作者:cix123 栏目:系统运维

2016.8.10 20:00-21:20

1.1.3 Performing backups

1.1.3 执行备份

  Performing backups is perhaps the most important job of the system administrator, and it is also the job that is most often ignored or sloppily done. Backups are time consuming and boring, but they are absolutely necessary. Backups can be automated and delegated to an underling, but it is still the system administrator’s job to make sure that backups are executed correctly and on schedule (and that the resulting media can actually be used to restore files). 

  执行备份可能是系统管理员最重要的工作了这也是经常被忽视或者不经心去做的工作。备份工作耗时且单调但又绝对必要。备份可以自动进行且能授权给下属去做但系统管理员仍然要确保备份工作在按时正解进行备份介质确实可以恢复出原文件来。


单词

perhaps                 或许也许可能

most often              最经常很多时候通常来说

ignored                 忽略不顾

sloppily                粗心地

consuming               消耗

boring                  无聊的令人厌烦的

absolutely necessary    绝对必要

automated               自动化的机械化的

delegated               授权

underling               下属部下走卒

still                   仍然但是尽管如此

executed correctly      正确执行

on schedule             按时按照预定时间

resulting               作为结果的

actually                实际上事实上


1.1.4 Installing and upgrading software 

1.1.4 安装和软件更新

  When new software is acquired, it must be installed and tested, often under several operating systems and on several types of hardware. Once the software is working correctly, users must be informed of its availability and location. As patches and security updates are released, they must be incorporated smoothly into the local environment. 

  在获得新软件以后必须安装并测试它而且经常要在几种类型的操作系统和硬件下进行安装和测试。一旦软件能够正常工作还要告诉用户这个软件的位置。在补丁和安全升级发布出来的同时也必须平稳地将它融入到本地环境里。

  Local software and administrative scripts should be properly packaged and managed in a fashion that’s compatible with the native upgrade procedures used on systems at your site. As this software evolves, new releases should be staged for testing before being deployed to the entire site. 

  应该把本地软件和管理脚本正确地打包和管理使之适用于本地系统自身采取的升级机制。随着该软件向前发展新的发布版本应该先安排测试然后再部署到整个站点上去。


单词

acquired               取得捕获

correctly              正确地得体地

informed               通知

released               释放release的过去式已发布

incorporated           合并的

smoothly               平稳地平滑地流畅地流利地

into the               融入

environment            环境外界

properly               适当地正确地恰当地

managed                管理

in a fashion           马马虎虎勉强多少还…一点

compatible             兼容的能共处的可并立的

native upgrade         本地升级

procedures             程序规程

evolves                发展进化进展

releases               释放豁免

Be staged              测试表演 


1.1.5 Monitoring the system 

1.1.5 监视系统

  Large installations require vigilant supervision. Don’t expect users to report problems to you unless the issues are severe. Working around a problem is usually faster than taking the time to document and report it, so users often follow the path of least resistance. 

  大型的部署环境需要时刻进行监视。除非事态严重否则不要指望用户向系统管理员报告问题。比起花时间写说明报告问题绕过问题通常要快得多所以用户往往怎么省事怎么来。

  Regularly ensure that email and web services are working correctly, watch log files for early signs of trouble, make sure that local networks are properly connected, and keep an eye on the availability of system resources such as disk space. All of these chores are excellent opportunities for automation, and a variety of off-theshelf monitoring systems can help sysadmins with this task. 

  定期做检查确保电子邮件和Web服务正常运行查看日志文件掌握故障出现的早期迹象确保本地网络都连接正常监视系统资源如磁盘空间的可用性所有这些工作都很有可能自动执行各种各样现成的监视系统能够帮助系统管理员完成这项任务。


单词

installations           系统设施装置

require                 需要要求命令

vigilant                警惕的警醒的注意的警戒的

supervision             监督管理

least                   最小

resistance              阻力电阻抵抗反抗抵抗力

regularly               定期地有规律地整齐地匀称地

early signs             早期病征 早期症状 早期表现 

chores                  困难的工作

excellent               卓越的极好的杰出的

opportunities           有可能因素机会[数] 机遇

a variety of            种种各种各样的…

off the shelf           现成的不用定制的


2016.8.11 16:30-17:30

1.1.6 Troubleshooting

1.1.6 故障诊断

  System failures are inevitable. It is the administrator’s job to play mechanic by

diagnosing problems and calling in experts if needed. Finding the problem is often harder than fixing it.

  系统发生故障在所难免在必要时请来专家排除故障等都成了管理员的工作职责。找出问题往往比修复难上十倍。


单词

system failures        系统发生故障 制度失灵 系统故障 

inevitable             不可避免的

mechanic               技工机修工

Diagnosing Problems   诊断问题 

call in                召集召来

experts                专家人才expert的复数形式

fixing it              处理修复


1.1.7 Maintaining local documentation

1.1.7 维护本地文档

  As a system is changed to suit an organization’s needs, it begins to differ from the plain-vanilla system described by the documentation. Since the system administrator is responsible for making these customizations, it’s also the sysadmin’s duty to document the changes. This chore includes documenting where cables are run and how they are constructed, keeping maintenance records for all hardware, recording the status of backups, and documenting local procedures and policies.

  系统为适合单位的需要而逐渐改造随着改造的进行该系统便开始变得和文档当初所描述的那个基本系统不一样。既然系统管理员负责做这些定制工作那么写文档讲清楚变化也是管理员的职责。这项职责包括把电缆的走线位置、电缆连接方式等信息写入文档保留所有硬件的维护记录记录备份的状态编写本地处理过程和策略的文档等。


单词

maintaining          维护保养

suit                   适合使适应

maintenance records    维修记录 维护记录

recording              记录

documenting            编写 记录 记载 文件制作 

procedures             过程程序规程


1.1.8 Vigilantly monitoring security

1.1.8 时刻警惕系统安全

  The system administrator must implement a security policy and periodically check to be sure that the security of the system has not been violated. On lowsecurity systems, this chore might involve only a few basic checks for unauthorized access. On a high-security system, it can include an elaborate network of traps and auditing programs.

  系统管理员必须实施某种安全策略并且做定期检查确保系统安全没有受到侵害。在安全要求低的系统上这项工作任务可能仅仅包括对非授权访问进行粗略的检查。在安全高的系统上这可能包括仔细布置由陷阱和程序构建的监视网。


单词

vigilantly             警惕地警觉地留心地

periodically check     定期检查

not been violated      不被侵犯

chore                  繁琐零工

might                  力量威力势力可以

involve                包含牵涉使陷于潜心于

basic checks           基本检查

unauthorized           非法的未被授权的未授权的动作

an elaborate network   监视网一个精心设计的网络

traps                  陷阱

auditing             审计


1.1.9 Fire fighting

1.1.9 救火

  Although helping users with their various problems is rarely included in a system

administrator’s job description, it claims a significant portion of most administrators’ workdays. System administrators are bombarded with problems ranging

from “It worked yesterday and now it doesn’t! What did you change?” to “I spilled coffee on my keyboard! Should I pour water on it to wash it out?”

  尽管在系统管理员工作的规定范围之内很少会包括帮助用户解决各种问题但对于大多数系统管理员而主这通常占据了他们日常工作的很大一部分。系统管理员往往遭到形形×××问题的狂轰滥炸问题从“我的程序昨天正常工作了今天却不干活了您改变了什么”到“我把咖啡洒到键盘上了我应该把水倒到键盘上洗掉咖啡么”

  In most cases, your response to these issues affects your perceived value as an

administrator far more than does any actual technical skill you might possess. You

can either howl at the injustice of it all, or you can delight in the fact that a single well-handled trouble ticket scores as many brownie points as five hours of midnight debugging. You pick!

  在大部分情况下系统管理员对这些事情的响应要比他可能具备的任何实际技术技能更能够让人感觉到他作为一个系统管理员的价值所在。要么对此愤愤不平要么就欣然接受这样的事实深更半夜花5个小时调试问题和妥善处理一张故障工单相比在绩效评定上都一样。

  

单词

Although              尽管虽然但是然而

various               各种各样的多方面的

rarely included       很少会包括

job description       工作描述 职位描述 工作说明 

significant portion   很大一部分 

bombarded with        狂轰滥炸

problems ranging      等一系列问题 

spilled               溢出 覆水难收 泼洒

pour water            倒水

response to           对……的回答对……的反应

perceived value       感知价值知觉价值

far more than         远远超过多得多的

actual technical skill   实际的技能

might                 可能也许

possess               拥有具备

howl                  咆哮怒吼狂吠

delight in            因…感到快乐喜欢 取乐 欣喜 

fact                  事实实际真相

well-handled          妥善处理

trouble ticket        故障报告表

You pick              你接受


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